Frequently asked questions

About MISRA and general questions

What is MISRA?

MISRA is a collaboration between manufacturers, component suppliers, engineering consultancies and academics which seeks to research and promote best practice in developing safety- and security-related electronic systems and other software-intensive applications.

To this end, MISRA conducts research projects and publishes documents that provide accessible information for engineers and management.

MISRA also facilitates the dissemination and exchange of information between practitioners through supporting and holding technical events.

Can I get involved in MISRA?

We welcome active participants in our working groups who are prepared to contribute to the technical work of these groups. From time to time we ask for external reviewers to comment on drafts of our documents. Please contact us if you are interested in either of these.

How can I keep in touch with MISRA developments?

Updates to MISRA’s activities will be published through this website under the “News” section.

Who runs MISRA?

MISRA is managed by The MISRA Consortium Limited, an independent not-for-profit entity.


Frequently asked questions on MISRA C and the latest version, MISRA C:2023

What is the most recent version of MISRA C?

This is MISRA C:2023, also known as MISRA C Third Edition, Second Revision.

Why MISRA C:2023?

Although this is a further incremental update we have given it a new designation to mark the 25th Anniversary of MISRA C and because this now extends to support for the C11 and C18 language versions.

What does “Third Edition, Second Revision” mean?

The following primary editions of MISRA C have been released:

  • MISRA C:1998 – The first edition
  • MISRA C:2004 – The second edition
  • MISRA C:2012 – The third edition

Subsequent to the publication of MISRA C:2012, further incremental updates have been released, and consolidated into revised documents:

  • MISRA C:2012 (Feb 2019) – The Third edition, First revision incorporated amendment 1 (AMD1) and technical corrigendum 1 (TC1) – also known as MISRA C:2019
  • MISRA C:2023 (Apr 2023) – The Third edition, Second revision incorporated amendments 2 (AMD2), 3 (AMD3) and 4 (AMD4), plus technical corrigendum 2 (TC2)
Will MISRA C:2023 be available in hardcopy?

Yes we provide an option for hardcopy via a “print on demand” service, see Shop > Hardcopies. Please note the PDF version is intended for single-user on-screen use and you are not able to print from it.

I previously purchased an earlier version of the document, can I get an upgrade?

For single-user versions regrettably not, due to the administration overhead involved and our desire to keep the price low. Corporate users (multiuser licenses) can contact us for details of options to purchase or upgrade to the latest version

Can I still purchase earlier versions?

If these are required for legacy purposes please contact us. All new purchases of MISRA C will only issue the MISRA C:2023 version.

What is the version history of MISRA C?

These are the versions of MISRA C, with the newest first:

  • MISRA C:2023 (Third Edition, Second Revision) – published 2023, the current version incorporating support for C11 and C18 language features
  • MISRA C:2012 (Third Edition, First Revision) – published 2019, incorporated additional security guidelines
  • MISRA C:2012 (Third Edition) – published 2013, incorporated support for C99 language features, improved strong typing model, analysis keywords
  • MISRA C:2004 (Second Edition) – published 2004, taking into account user feedback and cross-industry applications
  • MISRA C:1998 (First Edition) – published 1998, original guidance emerging from the automotive industry.

MISRA publications

What activities is MISRA working on at the moment?

MISRA is currently working on further updates to MISRA C, a new version of MISRA C++, revisions to the MISRA AC set of documents and further content on safety arguments. Please visit the individual “Activities” page for more details.

Who develops MISRA documents?

MISRA documents are developed collaboratively by working groups made up of a broad cross-section of interests, following our overall philosophy of “guidance by engineers, for engineers”.

Can I get involved in MISRA?

We welcome active participants in our working groups who are prepared to contribute to the technical work of these groups. From time to time we ask for external reviewers to comment on drafts of our documents. Please contact us if you are interested in either of these.

Who wrote MISRA C?

MISRA C originated when two of the original members of the MISRA project, Ford and Land Rover, became aware they were working separately on coding guidelines for embedded C in automotive systems. They agreed a MISRA publication would be of greater benefit to the industry. The first version of MISRA C was developed by 7 primary authors from 5 of the MISRA consortium members. A key part of the development was to conduct a public review where over 30 individuals from 8 countries and a wide range of companies including tool vendors provided comments on a draft of the document helping to shape its final form.

MISRA webstore

How do I get my documents?

An account is automatically created for you as part of the check-out process when you buy documents and your login details are emailed to you. Visit your account to review your purchase history and download your documents. An email is also sent to you with a download link after you have paid for your purchases. You may need to log in with details provided to access your documents.

What is your privacy policy?

Please follow the links to review our privacy policy and terms of sale. You agree to be bound by these when using the webstore and purchasing our documents.

Why do I need an account?

The MISRA webstore operates on a “self service” basis to allow you to review your past orders and retrieve your document purchases.

Please ensure you provide a valid email address for all transactions.

If this is the first time you’ve used our webstore an account is created automatically as part of checkout.

If you a returning customer then you will need to log in during checkout using the details provided during your first purchase.

Who can use a document I purchase?

Document sales through the webstore are sold on an individual user basis and may only be used by the named user. They may not be shared with anyone else. If you require shared use, please contact us for details of corporate licenses.

I lost my password or can’t log in

Please follow the link on the “Login” page to reset your password

Please note, if this is the first time to use the MISRA webstore you do not need to create an account or log in. This is done automatically at checkout. On any subsequent visits you will need to log in using the details that are emailed to you on completion of your first purchase.

Also, the discussion forums / bulletin boards are a separate account (see other questions) and you are not automatically registered for these after a purchase.

Can I buy more than one document in a transaction?

Yes you can purchase different documents and/or documents for more than one person in a single transaction. However please note that multiple copies purchased in this way are still single-user documents.

Why did my order fail?

The most common reason for orders failing is that card details cannot be verified by the payment processor. Please ensure that the address and postal/ZIP code you provide during checkout match the card. We will investigate providing different purchase and billing addresses in a future update.

How do I get an invoice for my purchase?

An invoice from The MISRA Consortium Limited (separate from the card receipt) is attached to the email informing you that your order is complete, and you can also view it from the “My account” section of the webstore.

Please check the email address you provide carefully to ensure that it is valid.

Also please note your bank may charge addiitonal fees on the transaction; we do not have any control or visibility over these and therefore these will not be included in our invoice.

What currency does the webstore use?

All webstore transactions are conducted in Pounds Sterling (GBP) and our invoices are also issued in GBP. If you are paying using a non-GBP credit card, the amount charged in your local currency is determined by your card issuer.


Do I have to pay VAT?

The short answer is “it depends”. Our current policy is as follows but it is based on our current understanding of VAT regulations and may be amended at any time

  • If you are located in the UK, then UK VAT is automatically applied to your purchase.
  • If you are located in the EU, we are required to collect EU VAT at the rate applicable in your country unless you are a bona fide business customer. If you are a business customer you must supply a VAT number valid for cross-border transactions which is automatically verified as part of the checkout process. Please be sure to enter a valid VAT number for these purposes, which you can check yourself at before making your purchase. If we cannot verify the VAT number you provided during checkout, then VAT will still be applied.
    • Your basket will be automatically updated if your VAT details can be verified.
    • Otherwise we are obliged to collect VAT and this cannot be refunded to you subsequently.
  • Otherwise VAT is not applied
  • Your sales invoice will show whether or not VAT was collected, and if so how much and at what rate. We regret we cannot update this retrospectively if you have entered incorrect information. Therefore please ensure all the details you enter including address and VAT number are correct to assist the verification process.
  • Please note that VAT validation relies on an external service that at times may be offline or unable to return a result. In such circumstances, which are outside our control, we have to collect VAT. If you are unable to get the system to recognize your VAT number please try again later or check that all your details are correct and accurate. You do not need to include the country prefix (e.g. DE) when entering your VAT number.
Do I have to use the webstore for individual documents?

December 2023: We regret that at the present time we cannot process orders for individual documents outside the webstore due to the additional administration effort involved. Please order via the webstore and pay using a major credit or debit card.

Please do not send unsolicited purchase orders for webstore documents as we will not be able to process them.

Can MISRA provide me hardcopies?

Hardcopies are sold via a “print on demand” service and we do not control these transactions. Please select an appropriate marketplace that can ship to your location. Please note we cannot order hardcopies on your behalf nor ship copies to you ourselves.

MISRA Bulletin Board

How do I reset or change my password?
  • If you have forgotten your password or it’s the first time you’ve visited the new forum area, you will need to reset your password, click Login > Lost Password and provide the email address you previously registered with
  • If you subsequently need to change your password, look under the user control panel (User CP) when logged in. Use the slider to expand the options under “Your Profile”
I have a question, where can I ask it?

Please post it on our Bulletin Board (see Discussions). Free registration is required to post.

Why can’t I log in to the Bulletin Board?

All registrations are reviewed and approved by an administrator. At busy times this may take a few days so please be patient if you don’t hear back from us right away.

Is my login the same for discussions as well as for purchases?

These two areas of the website require separate registration – you are not automatically registered for the Bulletin Board if you make a purchase

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